Law is a set of rules, enforceable by social institutions and governmental agencies, that governs the way that people conduct themselves. It protects individual rights, including property and contract rights, as well as procedural rights, such as the right to a fair trial. Law shapes society and history, and helps to maintain order.
Legal systems are divided into three categories: common law, civil law, and international law. Each of these systems is different from the other. While many of these systems are similar, they are based on different processes and serve different purposes.
In the Common Law system, decisions by the courts are recognized as “law.” The legal process is generally less detailed and involves fewer steps than in a civil law legal system. Judges are not empowered to make legislative or budgetary decisions. Rather, the decisions of the court are a matter of public record.
Although the concept of “natural law” has its origins in ancient Greek philosophy, it re-emerged in mainstream culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas. Throughout the 20th century, utilitarian theories dominated the legal profession.
In modern times, the concept of natural law has undergone some revision. Many religious legal systems, such as Islamic Sharia and Jewish Halakha, survive in some communities. Other legal systems include European, Soviet, and Chinese law. These systems all focus on issues of property, land, and covenants.
Contemporary legal systems also include commercial, labour, and tax law. Tax law, for example, regulates the taxation of income and value-added taxes. Commercial law, on the other hand, deals with complex contracts and business. International law covers human rights, and United Nations treaties are signed by governments to settle international disputes.
One of the most important aspects of legal system is the role of the judiciary. The judges do not have the power to direct armies, and the rulings are not always handed down. Because of this, accountability of government officials and judicial officers is especially difficult.
Civil law legal systems are usually shorter and more concise, since courts only have to write a single decision for a single case. Some systems are more detailed and require extensive judicial and human elaboration.
There are four universal principles of Rule of Law. They are: that it is the responsibility of the citizens to adhere to it; that it should be available to the people; that it should be impartial; and that it should be clear.
The concept of “Rule of Law” is a political ideal. The concept is also an ideal in a wide array of liberal political morality values, including democracy, economic freedom, human rights, and social justice.
Often, legal systems serve these purposes better than others. Law can be used to maintain the status quo or to promote social change. However, the consequences of breaking the law and breaking social rule are different.
Legal systems, like all other social structures, have a political basis. This can be reflected in the constitution of a nation or by the nature of its political party. Depending on the nation, the political landscape will vary greatly.